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  • Constitutive skipping of alternatively spliced exon 10 in the ATP7A gene abolishes Golgi localization of the menkes protein and produces the occipital horn syndrome.

Constitutive skipping of alternatively spliced exon 10 in the ATP7A gene abolishes Golgi localization of the menkes protein and produces the occipital horn syndrome.

Human molecular genetics (1998-04-18)
M Qi, P H Byers
ABSTRACT

The ATP7A gene encodes a copper-transporting ATPase. Mutations in this gene result in two clinically distinct X-linked inherited disorders: Menkes disease and occipital horn syndrome (OHS). We identified a single exon skipping in the ATP7A transcript in cells from the affected proband, affected cousins and obligate carriers in a family with OHS. Genomic sequencing identified an A-->T transversion at the +3 position in the splice donor site of intron 10 (gtaaagt-->gttaagt) in all affected individuals and the obligate female carriers. This mutation results in the constitutive skipping of exon 10 and creates an in-frame deletion of transmembrane domains 3 and 4 (78 amino acids) in the mature transcript. The exon 10-skipped transcript is present in low amounts as an alternatively spliced product in normal individuals. Immunocytochemical assay shows that these two protein products have different subcellular distributions: the major form is concentrated in the perinuclear Golgi system while the minor form (as the only form in this family with OHS) is co-localized with the endoplasmic reticulum-resident BiP protein (GRP78). These findings indicate that endoplasmic reticulum localization only of a variant ATP7A protein is insufficient to effect normal copper transport.