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  • LOXL2 Is Highly Expressed in Cancer-Associated Fibroblasts and Associates to Poor Colon Cancer Survival.

LOXL2 Is Highly Expressed in Cancer-Associated Fibroblasts and Associates to Poor Colon Cancer Survival.

Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research (2015-07-25)
Sofía Torres, Irene Garcia-Palmero, Mercedes Herrera, Rubén A Bartolomé, Cristina Peña, M Jesús Fernandez-Aceñero, Guillermo Padilla, Alberto Peláez-García, María Lopez-Lucendo, Rufo Rodriguez-Merlo, Antonio García de Herreros, Félix Bonilla, J Ignacio Casal
ABSTRACT

Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAF) are major mediators in tumor microenvironment. We investigated the changes in protein expression in colon cancer-associated fibroblasts compared with normal fibroblasts (NF) in the context of searching for prognostic biomarkers, particularly for stage II patients. CAFs and NFs isolated from colon cancer patients were used to identify differentially expressed proteins using quantitative proteomics. Stromal expression of deregulated proteins was analyzed by IHC. Prognostic impact was studied using external gene-expression datasets for training, then quantitative PCR and IHC for validation in different cohorts of patients. Combined datasets were used for prediction of risk assessment at stages II and III. A desmoplastic signature composed of 32 proteins, highly specific for stromal components in colon cancer, was identified. These proteins were enriched for extracellular matrix organization components, TGFβ signaling pathway, fibrosis, and wound-healing proteins. The expression in CAFs of 11 upregulated proteins and four downregulated proteins, selected for biomarker validation, was verified by orthogonal techniques. LOXL2 displayed a high prognostic impact by using external independent datasets and further validation in two different cohorts of patients. High expression of LOXL2 was associated with higher recurrence P = 0.001 HR, 5.38 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.70-17.01] and overall survival P = 0.001 HR, 8.52 (95% CI, 1.90-38.29). IHC analysis revealed a prognostic value for LOXL2 in stage II patients. We identified LOXL2 to be associated with the outcome of colon cancer patients. Furthermore, it can be used to stratify patients at stages II and III for further therapeutic decisions.

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