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  • Occurrence and risk assessment of selected phthalates in drinking water from waterworks in China.

Occurrence and risk assessment of selected phthalates in drinking water from waterworks in China.

Environmental science and pollution research international (2015-03-11)
Xiaowei Liu, Jianghong Shi, Ting Bo, Huiyuan Li, John C Crittenden
ABSTRACT

The first nationwide survey of six phthalates (diethyl phthalate (DEP); dimethyl phthalate (DMP); di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP); butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP); bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP); din-octyl phthalate (DnOP)) in drinking waters from waterworks was conducted across seven geographical zones in China. Of the six target phthalates, DBP and DEHP were the highest abundant phthalates with median (± interquartile range) values of 0.18 ± 0.47 and 0.18 ± 0.97 μg/L, respectively, but did not exceed the limit values in China's Standards for Drinking Water Quality. These phthalates in drinking water were generally higher in the northern regions of China than those in the southern and eastern regions. Based on the investigated concentrations, lifetime exposure risk assessment indicated that phthalates in drinking water did not pose carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic risks to Chinese residents, even under the conservative scenario (with 95th percentile risk). In addition, we found that DEHP contributed the greatest risk to the total exposure risk of all the selected phthalates and oral ingestion was the main exposure route for phthalates in drinking water.

MATERIALS
Product Number
Brand
Product Description

Sigma-Aldrich
Diethyl pyrocarbonate, 96% (NT)
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Diethyl ether, contains 1 ppm BHT as inhibitor, anhydrous, ≥99.7%
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Dess-Martin periodinane, 97%
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Diethyl pyrocarbonate, 96% (NT)
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Bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate-3,4,5,6-d4, 98 atom % D
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Diethyl pyrocarbonate, 96% (NT)
Supelco
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Sodium phosphate dibasic dodecahydrate, BioXtra, ≥99.0% (T)
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Methanol, anhydrous, 99.8%
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Hexane, anhydrous, 95%
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Methanol-12C, 99.95 atom % 12C
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Dioctyl phthalate-3,4,5,6-d4, 98 atom % D
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Methanol, suitable for HPLC, gradient grade, 99.93%
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Methanol, HPLC Plus, ≥99.9%, poly-coated bottles
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Methanol, NMR reference standard
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Hexane, HPLC Plus, for HPLC, GC, and residue analysis, ≥95%