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  • Dissociation of double-headed cytoplasmic dynein into single-headed species and its motile properties.

Dissociation of double-headed cytoplasmic dynein into single-headed species and its motile properties.

Cell motility and the cytoskeleton (2004-07-06)
Shiori Toba, Yoko Yano Toyoshima
ABSTRACT

Cytoplasmic dynein is a minus-end directed microtubule motor and plays important roles in the transport of various intracellular cargoes. Cytoplasmic dynein comprises two identical heavy chains and forms a dimer (double-headed dynein); the total molecular weight of the cytoplasmic dynein complex is about 1.5 million. The dynein motor domain is structurally very different from those of kinesin and myosin, and our understanding of the mechanisms of dynein energy transduction is limited mainly because of the difficulty in obtaining a sufficient quantity of purified and active cytoplasmic dynein. We purified cytoplasmic dynein, which was free from dynactin and other dynein-associated proteins. The purified cytoplasmic dynein was active in an in vitro motility assay. The controlled dialysis of the purified dynein against 4 M urea resulted in its complete dissociation into monomeric species (single-headed dynein). The separation of the dynein heads by the treatment was reversible. The MgATPase activities of the single-headed and reconstituted double-headed dynein were comparable to that of intact dynein. The double-headed dynein bundled microtubules in the absence of ATP; the single-headed dynein did not. The single-headed dynein produced in vitro microtubule-gliding motility at velocities very similar to those of double-headed dynein at various ATP concentrations. These results indicate that a single cytoplasmic dynein heavy chain is sufficient to produce robust microtubule motility. Application of the double- and single-headed dynein molecules in various assay systems will elucidate the mechanism of action of the cytoplasmic dynein.

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Protein A from Staphylococcus aureus, Soluble, essentially salt-free, lyophilized powder, extracellular