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  • Optimal CD4 T cell priming after LPS-based adjuvanticity with CD134 costimulation relies on CXCL9 production.

Optimal CD4 T cell priming after LPS-based adjuvanticity with CD134 costimulation relies on CXCL9 production.

Journal of leukocyte biology (2017-04-23)
Paurvi Shinde, Wenhai Liu, Antoine Ménoret, Andrew D Luster, Anthony T Vella
ABSTRACT

LPS is a powerful adjuvant, and although LPS-mediated TLR4 signaling has been exquisitely delineated, the in vivo mechanism of how TLR4 responses impact T cell priming is far less clear. Besides costimulation, TNF and type 1 IFN are dominant cytokines released after TLR4 activation and can shape T cell responses, but other downstream factors have not been examined extensively. Depending on context, we show that IFNαR1 blockade resulted in minor to major effects on specific CD4 T cell clonal expansion. To help explain these differences, it was hypothesized that IFNαR1 blockade would inhibit specific T cell migration by reducing chemokine receptor signaling, but specific CD4 T cells from IFNαR1-blocked mice were readily able to migrate in response to specific chemokines. Next, we examined downstream factors and found that type 1 IFN signaling was necessary for chemokine production, even when mice were immunized with specific Ag with LPS and CD134 costimulation. IFNαR1 signaling promoted CXCL9 and CXCL10 synthesis, suggesting that these chemokines might be involved in the LPS and CD134 costimulation response. After immunization, we show that CXCL9 blockade inhibited CD4 T cell accumulation in the liver but also in LNs, even in the presence of elevated serum IFN-β levels. Thus, whereas type 1 IFN might have direct effects on primed CD4 T cells, the downstream chemokines that play a role during migration also impact accumulation. In sum, CXCL9 production is a key benchmark for productive CD4 T cell vaccination strategies.

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IgG from mouse serum, reagent grade, ≥95% (SDS-PAGE), lyophilized powder