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  • RAC1B Suppresses TGF-β1-Dependent Cell Migration in Pancreatic Carcinoma Cells through Inhibition of the TGF-β Type I Receptor ALK5.

RAC1B Suppresses TGF-β1-Dependent Cell Migration in Pancreatic Carcinoma Cells through Inhibition of the TGF-β Type I Receptor ALK5.

Cancers (2019-05-22)
Hendrik Ungefroren, Hannah Otterbein, Christian Fiedler, Koichiro Mihara, Morley D Hollenberg, Frank Gieseler, Hendrik Lehnert, David Witte
ABSTRACT

The small GTPase Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1B (RAC1B) has been shown previously by RNA interference-mediated knockdown (KD) to function as a powerful inhibitor of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1-induced cell migration and epithelial-mesenchymal transition in epithelial cells, but the underlying mechanism has remained enigmatic. Using pancreatic carcinoma cells, we show that both KD and Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR)/Cas9-mediated knockout (KO) of RAC1B increased the expression of the TGF-β type I receptor ALK5 (activin receptor-like kinase 5), but this effect was more pronounced in CRISPR-KO cells. Of note, in KO, but not KD cells, ALK5 upregulation was associated with resensitization of TGFBR1 to induction by TGF-β1 stimulation. RAC1B KO also increased TGF-β1-induced C-terminal SMAD3 phosphorylation, SMAD3 transcriptional activity, growth inhibition, and cell migration. The KD of ALK5 expression by RNA interference or inactivation of the ALK5 kinase activity by dominant-negative interference or ATP-competitive inhibition rescued the cells from the RAC1B KD/KO-mediated increase in TGF-β1-induced cell migration, whereas the ectopic expression of kinase-active ALK5 mimicked this RAC1B KD/KO effect. We conclude that RAC1B downregulates the abundance of ALK5 and SMAD3 signaling, thereby attenuating TGF-β/SMAD3-driven cellular responses, such as growth inhibition and cell motility.

MATERIALS
Product Number
Brand
Product Description

Sigma-Aldrich
Anti-Rac1b Antibody, Upstate®, from rabbit