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  • Combining Different In Vitro Bioassays to Evaluate Genotoxicity of Water-Accommodated Fractions from Petroleum Products.

Combining Different In Vitro Bioassays to Evaluate Genotoxicity of Water-Accommodated Fractions from Petroleum Products.

Toxics (2020-07-02)
Sarah Johann, Mira Goßen, Peter A Behnisch, Henner Hollert, Thomas-Benjamin Seiler
ABSTRACT

Genotoxicity assessment is of high relevance for crude and refined petroleum products, since oil compounds are known to cause DNA damage with severe consequences for aquatic biota as demonstrated in long-term monitoring studies. This study aimed at the optimization and evaluation of small-scale higher-throughput assays (Ames fluctuation, micronucleus, Nrf2-CALUX®) covering different mechanistic endpoints as first screening tools for genotoxicity assessment of oils. Cells were exposed to native and chemically dispersed water-accommodated fractions (WAFs) of three oil types varying in their processing degree. Independent of an exogenous metabolic activation system, WAF compounds induced neither base exchange nor frame shift mutations in bacterial strains. However, significantly increased chromosomal aberrations in zebrafish liver (ZF-L) cells were observed. Oxidative stress was indicated for some treatments and was not correlated with observed DNA damage. Application of a chemical dispersant increased the genotoxic potential rather by the increased bioavailability of dissolved and particulate oil compounds. Nonetheless, the dispersant induced a clear oxidative stress response, indicating a relevance for general toxic stress. Results showed that the combination of different in vitro assays is important for a reliable genotoxicity assessment. Especially, the ZF-L capable of active metabolism and DNA repair seems to be a promising model for WAF testing.

MATERIALS
Product Number
Brand
Product Description

Sigma-Aldrich
Dulbecco′s Modified Eagle′s Medium - low glucose, With 1000 mg/L glucose and L-glutamine, without sodium bicarbonate and phenol red, powder, suitable for cell culture
Sigma-Aldrich
L-15 Medium (Leibovitz), With L-glutamine, powder, suitable for cell culture