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  • Human Islets Contain a Beta Cell Type That Expresses Proinsulin But Not the Enzyme That Converts the Precursor to Insulin.

Human Islets Contain a Beta Cell Type That Expresses Proinsulin But Not the Enzyme That Converts the Precursor to Insulin.

The journal of histochemistry and cytochemistry : official journal of the Histochemistry Society (2020-10-02)
Gladys Teitelman
ABSTRACT

In pancreatic beta cells, proinsulin (ProIN) undergoes folding in endoplasmic reticulum/Golgi system and is translocated to secretory vesicles for processing into insulin and C-peptide by the proprotein convertases (PC)1/3 and PC2, and carboxypeptidase E. Human beta cells show significant variation in the level of expression of PC1/3, the critical proconvertase involved in proinsulin processing. To ascertain whether this heterogeneity is correlated with the level of expression of the prohormone and mature hormone, the expression of proinsulin, insulin, and PC1/3 in human beta cells was examined. This analysis identified a human beta cell type that expressed proinsulin but lacked PC1/3 (ProIN+PC1/3-). This beta cell type is absent in rodent islets and is abundant in human islets of adults but scarce in islets from postnatal donors. Human islets also contained a beta cell type that expressed both proinsulin and variable levels of PC1/3 (ProIN+PC1/3+) and a less abundant cell type that lacked proinsulin but expressed the convertase (ProIN-PC1/3+). These cell phenotypes were altered by type 2 diabetes. These data suggest that these three cell types represent different stages of a dynamic process with proinsulin folding in ProIN+PC1/3- cells, proinsulin conversion into insulin in ProIN+PC1/3+cells, and replenishment of the proinsulin content in ProIN-PC1/3+ cells.

MATERIALS
Product Number
Brand
Product Description

Sigma-Aldrich
Anti-Insulin Antibody, clone1, clone MAB1, from mouse, purified by affinity chromatography