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  • The Chaperone System in Salivary Glands: Hsp90 Prospects for Differential Diagnosis and Treatment of Malignant Tumors.

The Chaperone System in Salivary Glands: Hsp90 Prospects for Differential Diagnosis and Treatment of Malignant Tumors.

International journal of molecular sciences (2022-08-27)
Charbel A Basset, Francesca Rappa, Rosario Barone, Ada Maria Florena, Rossana Porcasi, Everly Conway de Macario, Alberto J L Macario, Angelo Leone
ABSTRACT

Salivary gland tumors represent a serious medical problem and new tools for differential diagnosis and patient monitoring are needed. Here, we present data and discuss the potential of molecular chaperones as biomarkers and therapeutic targets, focusing on Hsp10 and Hsp90. The salivary glands are key physiological elements but, unfortunately, the information and the means available for the management of their pathologies, including cancer, are scarce. Progress in the study of carcinogenesis has occurred on various fronts lately, one of which has been the identification of the chaperone system (CS) as a physiological system with presence in all cells and tissues (including the salivary glands) that plays a role in tumor-cell biology. The chief components of the CS are the molecular chaperones, some of which belong to families of evolutionarily related molecules named heat shock protein (Hsp). We are quantifying and mapping these molecular chaperones in salivary glands to determine their possible role in the carcinogenetic mechanisms in these glands and to assess their potential as diagnostic biomarkers and therapeutic targets. Here, we report recent findings on Hsp10 and Hsp90 and show that the quantitative and topographic patterns of tissue Hsp90 are distinctive of malignant tumors and differentiate benign from malignant lesions. The Hsp90 results show a correlation between quantity of chaperone and tumor progression, which in turn calls for negative chaperonotherapy, namely, elimination/inhibition of the chaperone to stop the tumor. We found that in vitro, the Hsp90 inhibitor Ganetespib is cytotoxic for the salivary gland UM-HACC-2A cell line. The drug, by interfering with the pro-survival NF-κB pathway, hampers cellular proliferation and migration, and favors apoptosis, and can, therefore, be considered a suitable candidate for future experimentation to develop a treatment for salivary gland tumors.

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