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  • Ultrasound characteristics of experimentally induced luteinized unruptured follicles (LUF) and naturally occurring hemorrhagic anovulatory follicles (HAF) in the mare.

Ultrasound characteristics of experimentally induced luteinized unruptured follicles (LUF) and naturally occurring hemorrhagic anovulatory follicles (HAF) in the mare.

Theriogenology (2011-10-01)
J Cuervo-Arango, J R Newcombe
ABSTRACT

The development of hemorrhagic anovulatory follicles (HAF) involves luteinization and hemorrhage of the follicle. This is observed on ultrasound as an increase in the echogenicity of the granulosa layer and formation of echoic particles in the antrum. The inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis with flunixin meglumine (FM) during the periovulatory period induces ovulatory failure with development of luteinized unruptured follicles (LUF). These two types of anovulatory follicles appear to share similar ultrasound features but they have not been compared critically. The following endpoints: follicle diameter, follicular contents score, interval from hCG administration to beginning of follicular hemorrhage, interval from hemorrhage to organization of follicular contents, and cycle length were studied and compared in mares with HAF (n = 11) and LUF (n = 13). The objective of this study was to elucidate whether these two unruptured follicles have a consistent clinical pattern of development and therefore can be considered as part of the same anovulatory syndrome. None of the endpoints analyzed differed significantly between HAF and LUF. However, there was a greater individual variation in HAF as compared with LUF in regards to interval from hCG to hemorrhage, follicular diameter at the administration of hCG, and beginning of hemorrhage. In conclusion, HAF share a similar cascade of ultrasound characteristics with the experimentally induced LUF. This finding may provide new insights in elucidating the pathogenesis of HAF.

MATERIALS
Product Number
Brand
Product Description

Sigma-Aldrich
Flunixin meglumine, ≥98% (HPLC)
Flunixin meglumine, European Pharmacopoeia (EP) Reference Standard