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  • Increased levels of oxidized glutathione in CD4+ lymphocytes associated with disturbed intracellular redox balance in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection.

Increased levels of oxidized glutathione in CD4+ lymphocytes associated with disturbed intracellular redox balance in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection.

Blood (1995-07-01)
P Aukrust, A M Svardal, F Müller, B Lunden, R K Berge, P M Ueland, S S Frøland
ABSTRACT

We investigated the intracellular glutathione redox status in isolated lymphocyte subpopulations and monocytes in patients with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection and in healthy controls. CD4+ lymphocytes from HIV-1-infected patients were primarily characterized by a substantial increase in oxidized glutathione levels and a considerable decrease in the ratio of reduced to total glutathione, in most cases below 0.5 in patients with symptomatic HIV-1 infection, rather than decreased levels of reduced glutathione. The increase in oxidized glutathione was strongly correlated with low numbers of CD4+ lymphocytes in peripheral blood and impaired stimulated interleukin-2 production and proliferation in peripheral blood mononuclear cells, which is compatible with an immunopathogenic role for these redox disturbances. The HIV-1-infected patients with the most advanced clinical and immunologic disease were also characterized by an increase in levels of reduced glutathione in monocytes, suggesting that the glutathione redox cycle may be differentially regulated in CD4+ lymphocytes and monocytes. We could not confirm previous reports suggesting cysteine deficiency as a major cause of disturbed glutathione homeostasis during HIV-1 infection. The demonstrated glutathione abnormalities were correlated with raised serum levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha. These findings suggest that a therapeutical approach, which can restore the glutathione redox dysbalance in CD4+ lymphocytes and decrease the inflammatory stress, may be worthwhile exploring in HIV-1 infection.

MATERIALS
Product Number
Brand
Product Description

Sigma-Aldrich
L-Glutathione oxidized, ≥98% (HPLC)
Sigma-Aldrich
L-Glutathione oxidized, ≥98%, lyophilized powder
Sigma-Aldrich
L-Glutathione oxidized, BioXtra, ≥98%