MilliporeSigma
  • LXRα and LXRβ Nuclear Receptors Evolved in the Common Ancestor of Gnathostomes.

LXRα and LXRβ Nuclear Receptors Evolved in the Common Ancestor of Gnathostomes.

Genome biology and evolution (2017-01-07)
Elza Fonseca, Raquel Ruivo, Mónica Lopes-Marques, Huixian Zhang, Miguel M Santos, Byrappa Venkatesh, L Filipe C Castro
ABSTRACT

Nuclear receptors (NRs) regulate numerous aspects of the endocrine system. They mediate endogenous and exogenous cues, ensuring a homeostatic control of development and metabolism. Gene duplication, loss and mutation have shaped the repertoire and function of NRs in metazoans. Here, we examine the evolution of a pivotal orchestrator of cholesterol metabolism in vertebrates, the liver X receptors (LXRs). Previous studies suggested that LXRα and LXRβ genes emerged in the mammalian ancestor. However, we show through genome analysis and functional assay that bona fide LXRα and LXRβ orthologues are present in reptiles, coelacanth and chondrichthyans but not in cyclostomes. These findings show that LXR duplicated before gnathostome radiation, followed by asymmetric paralogue loss in some lineages. We suggest that a tighter control of cholesterol levels in vertebrates was achieved through the exploitation of a wider range of oxysterols, an ability contingent on ligand-binding pocket remodeling.

MATERIALS
Product Number
Brand
Product Description

Sigma-Aldrich
24(S)-Hydroxycholesterol, ≥98% (HPLC)