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856177

Sigma-Aldrich

Methyl viologen dichloride hydrate

98%

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Synonym(s):
1,1′-Dimethyl-4,4′-bipyridinium dichloride, Gramoxone, Paraquat dichloride
Empirical Formula (Hill Notation):
C12H14Cl2N2 · xH2O
CAS Number:
Molecular Weight:
257.16 (anhydrous basis)
Beilstein:
3752782
MDL number:
PubChem Substance ID:
NACRES:
NA.23

Assay

98%

form

solid

mp

>300 °C (lit.)

SMILES string

[Cl-].[Cl-].[H]O[H].C[n+]1ccc(cc1)-c2cc[n+](C)cc2

InChI

1S/C12H14N2.2ClH.H2O/c1-13-7-3-11(4-8-13)12-5-9-14(2)10-6-12;;;/h3-10H,1-2H3;2*1H;1H2/q+2;;;/p-2

InChI key

RLGVBTFWTZJYIL-UHFFFAOYSA-L

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This Item
27184588190T4375
form

solid

form

-

form

powder

form

powder

mp

>300 °C (lit.)

mp

260 °C (dec.) (lit.)

mp

255 °C (dec.) (lit.)

mp

255 °C (dec.) (lit.)

Quality Level

100

Quality Level

200

Quality Level

200

Quality Level

200

General description

Methyl viologen dichloride hydrate is a well-known electron acceptor since it is having similar reduction potential value compared to the conduction band (−0.44 V) of TiO2.

Application

Methyl viologen dichloride hydrate can be used as an electron transfer agent, which provides insights into the dynamics of the excited state of quantum dot materials.

It can also be used as a mediator in the synthesis of ultrasmall bimetallic PdAg nanocatalysts.

Signal Word

Danger

Hazard Classifications

Acute Tox. 2 Dermal - Acute Tox. 2 Inhalation - Acute Tox. 3 Oral - Aquatic Acute 1 - Aquatic Chronic 1 - Eye Irrit. 2 - Skin Irrit. 2 - STOT RE 1 - STOT SE 3

Target Organs

Respiratory system

Storage Class Code

6.1A - Combustible, acute toxic Cat. 1 and 2 / very toxic hazardous materials

WGK

WGK 3

Flash Point(F)

Not applicable

Flash Point(C)

Not applicable

Personal Protective Equipment

dust mask type N95 (US), Eyeshields, Gloves

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Tetrahedron Letters, 33, 6677-6677 (1993)
The Journal of Physical Chemistry, 98, 6377-6377 (1994)
Claudia Montllor-Albalate et al.
Redox biology, 21, 101064-101064 (2018-12-24)
Cu/Zn Superoxide Dismutase (Sod1) is a highly conserved and abundant metalloenzyme that catalyzes the disproportionation of superoxide radicals into hydrogen peroxide and molecular oxygen. As a consequence, Sod1 serves dual roles in oxidative stress protection and redox signaling by both
Iratxe Estibariz et al.
mBio, 11(4) (2020-08-28)
Multiple studies have demonstrated rapid bacterial genome evolution during chronic infection with Helicobacter pylori In contrast, little was known about genetic changes during the first stages of infection, when selective pressure is likely to be highest. Using single-molecule, real-time (SMRT)
David B Hicks et al.
Microbiology (Reading, England), 165(9), 1001-1012 (2019-07-17)
Alkaliphilic Bacillus pseudofirmus OF4, which has a broad pH growth range of 7.5 to above 10.5, is yellow-pigmented due to carotenoids. Carotenoids contribute to membrane rigidity and can alleviate cellular oxidative stress. This study was undertaken to gain insight into

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