MilliporeSigma
  • Intravitreal Injection of PACAP Attenuates Acute Ocular Hypertension-Induced Retinal Injury Via Anti-Apoptosis and Anti-Inflammation in Mice.

Intravitreal Injection of PACAP Attenuates Acute Ocular Hypertension-Induced Retinal Injury Via Anti-Apoptosis and Anti-Inflammation in Mice.

Investigative ophthalmology & visual science (2022-03-17)
Peng Lu, Yuxun Shi, Dan Ye, Xi Lu, Xiaoyu Tang, Lu Cheng, Yue Xu, Jingjing Huang
ABSTRACT

Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) has shown potent neuroprotective effects in central nervous system and retina disorders. However, whether PACAP can attenuate retinal neurodegeneration induced by acute ocular hypertension (AOH) and the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of PACAP on the survival and function of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), apoptosis, and inflammation in a mouse model of AOH injury. PACAP was injected into the vitreous body immediately after inducing AOH injury. Hematoxylin and eosin staining and optical coherence tomography were used to evaluate the loss of retina tissue. Pattern electroretinogram was used to evaluate the function of RGCs. TUNEL assay was used to detect apoptosis. Immunofluorescence and western blot were employed to evaluate protein expression levels. PACAP treatment significantly reduced the losses of whole retina and inner retina thicknesses, Tuj1-positive RGCs, and the amplitudes of pattern electroretinograms induced by AOH injury. Additionally, PACAP treatment remarkably reduced the number of TUNEL-positive cells and inhibited the upregulation of Bim, Bax, and cleaved caspase-3 and downregulation of Bcl-xL after AOH injury. Moreover, PACAP markedly inhibited retinal reactive gliosis and vascular inflammation, as demonstrated by the downregulation of GFAP, Iba1, CD68, and CD45 in PACAP-treated mice. Furthermore, upregulated expression of NF-κB and phosphorylated NF-κB induced by AOH injury was attenuated by PACAP treatment. PACAP could prevent the loss of retinal tissue and improve the survival and function of RGCs. The neuroprotective effect of PACAP is probably associated with its potent anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory effects.

MATERIALS
Product Number
Brand
Product Description

Roche
cOmplete, Mini Protease Inhibitor Cocktail, Tablets provided in a glass vial
Sigma-Aldrich
Anti-Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein Antibody, Chemicon®, from chicken
Sigma-Aldrich
Anti-GFAP Antibody, Cy3 Conjugate, from mouse, CY3 conjugate
Sigma-Aldrich
Anti-Sox9 Antibody, Chemicon®, from rabbit