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  • Occurrence and distribution of 13 trichothecene toxins in naturally contaminated maize plants in Germany.

Occurrence and distribution of 13 trichothecene toxins in naturally contaminated maize plants in Germany.

Toxins (2012-11-20)
Margit Schollenberger, Hans-Martin Müller, Katrin Ernst, Sarah Sondermann, Melanie Liebscher, Claudia Schlecker, Gerald Wischer, Winfried Drochner, Karin Hartung, Hans-Peter Piepho
ABSTRACT

The objective of the present study was to monitor the occurrence and distribution of a spectrum of trichothecene toxins in different parts of maize plants. Therefore maize plants were sampled randomly from 13 fields in southwest Germany and the fractions kernels, cobs, husks, stalks, leaves and rudimentary ears were analyzed for eight A-type and five B-type trichothecenes. Each of the toxins was found in at least three of the total of 78 samples. The study revealed that both A-type and B-type trichothecenes may be present in all parts of the maize plant but may be unevenly distributed. For the contents of deoxynivalenol, 3- and 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol, nivalenol, scirpentriol, 15-monoacetoxyscirpenol, HT-2 and T-2 toxin significant differences (p < 0.05) were found between different parts of the maize plants whereas no significant differences were observed for fusarenon-X, 4,15-diacetoxyscirpenol, neosolaniol, T-2 triol and T-2 tetraol. Up to twelve toxins co-occurring in one sample were detected. As a group B-type trichothecenes dominated over A-type trichothecenes concerning incidences and levels. Contamination was strongest with rudimentary ears based on incidence and mean and maximum contents; mean contents with few exceptions tended towards a higher level than in other fractions with significant (p < 0.05) differences compared to leaves for seven toxins.

MATERIALS
Product Number
Brand
Product Description

Sigma-Aldrich
3-Acetyldeoxynivalenol, from Fusarium roseum
Sigma-Aldrich
15-O-Acetyl-4-deoxynivalenol from Fusarium graminearum
Supelco
Fusarenon X solution, 100 μg/mL in acetonitrile, analytical standard
Supelco
3-Acetyldeoxynivalenol
Supelco
Nivalenol solution, 100 μg/mL in acetonitrile, analytical standard
Supelco
3-Acetyldeoxynivalenol solution, ~100 μg/mL in acetonitrile, analytical standard
Supelco
15-Acetyldeoxynivalenol solution, ~100 μg/mL in acetonitrile, analytical standard
Nivalenol in acetonitrile, IRMM®, certified reference material
Supelco
Fusarenon X, analytical standard