MilliporeSigma
  • Analysis of phthalate esters in soils near an electronics manufacturing facility and from a non-industrialized area by gas purge microsyringe extraction and gas chromatography.

Analysis of phthalate esters in soils near an electronics manufacturing facility and from a non-industrialized area by gas purge microsyringe extraction and gas chromatography.

The Science of the total environment (2014-12-17)
Wei Wu, Jia Hu, Jinqi Wang, Xuerong Chen, Na Yao, Jing Tao, Yi-Kai Zhou
ABSTRACT

Here, a novel technique is described for the extraction and quantitative determination of six phthalate esters (PAEs) from soils by gas purge microsyringe extraction and gas chromatography. Recovery of PAEs ranged from 81.4% to 120.3%, and the relative standard deviation (n=6) ranged from 5.3% to 10.5%. Soil samples were collected from roadsides, farmlands, residential areas, and non-cultivated areas in a non-industrialized region, and from the same land-use types within 1 km of an electronics manufacturing facility (n=142). Total PAEs varied from 2.21 to 157.62 mg kg(-1) in non-industrialized areas and from 8.63 to 171.64 mg kg(-1) in the electronics manufacturing area. PAE concentrations in the non-industrialized area were highest in farmland, followed (in decreasing order) by roadsides, residential areas, and non-cultivated soil. In the electronics manufacturing area, PAE concentrations were highest in roadside soils, followed by residential areas, farmland, and non-cultivated soils. Concentrations of dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), and di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP) differed significantly (P<0.01) between the industrial and non-industrialized areas. Principal component analysis indicated that the strongest explanatory factor was related to DMP and DnBP in non-industrialized soils and to butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP) and DMP in soils near the electronics manufacturing facility. Congener-specific analysis confirmed that diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) was a predictive indication both in the non-industrialized area (r(2)=0.944, P<0.01) and the industrialized area (r(2)=0.860, P<0.01). The higher PAE contents in soils near the electronics manufacturing facility are of concern, considering the large quantities of electronic wastes generated with ongoing industrialization.

MATERIALS
Product Number
Brand
Product Description

Phthalic acid, European Pharmacopoeia (EP) Reference Standard
Supelco
Phthalic acid, analytical standard
Supelco
Bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, Selectophore
Supelco
Bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, PESTANAL®, analytical standard
Sigma-Aldrich
Phthalic acid, reagent grade, 98%
Sigma-Aldrich
Diethyl pyrocarbonate, 96% (NT)
Sigma-Aldrich
Phthalic acid, ACS reagent, ≥99.5%
Sigma-Aldrich
Diethyl pyrocarbonate, 96% (NT)
Sigma-Aldrich
Phthalic acid, puriss. p.a., ≥99.5% (T)
Supelco
Bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, certified reference material, TraceCERT®, Manufactured by: Sigma-Aldrich Production GmbH, Switzerland
Plastic additive 01, European Pharmacopoeia (EP) Reference Standard
Sigma-Aldrich
Diethyl pyrocarbonate, 96% (NT)
Sigma-Aldrich
Dess-Martin periodinane, 97%
Supelco
Methanol solution, contains 0.10 % (v/v) formic acid, UHPLC, suitable for mass spectrometry (MS), ≥99.5%
Sigma-Aldrich
Methanol solution, NMR reference standard, 4% in methanol-d4 (99.8 atom % D), NMR tube size 3 mm × 8 in.
Sigma-Aldrich
Benzyl benzoate, meets USP testing specifications
Sigma-Aldrich
Potassium hydrogen phthalate, BioXtra, ≥99.95%
Sigma-Aldrich
Benzyl benzoate, ReagentPlus®, ≥99.0%
Sigma-Aldrich
Potassium phthalate monobasic, puriss. p.a., ≥99.5% (T)
Sigma-Aldrich
Benzyl benzoate, tested according to Ph. Eur.
Sigma-Aldrich
Potassium phthalate monobasic, BioUltra, ≥99.5% (T)
Supelco
Potassium phthalate monobasic, reference material for titrimetry, certified by BAM, ≥99.5%
Sigma-Aldrich
Benzyl benzoate, natural, ≥99%, FG
USP
Benzyl benzoate, United States Pharmacopeia (USP) Reference Standard
Supelco
Potassium phthalate monobasic, Standard for quantitative NMR, TraceCERT®, Manufactured by: Sigma-Aldrich Production GmbH, Switzerland
Supelco
Benzyl benzoate, analytical standard
Supelco
Benzyl benzoate, Pharmaceutical Secondary Standard; Certified Reference Material
Sigma-Aldrich
Benzyl benzoate, ≥99%, FCC, FG
Sigma-Aldrich
Potassium phthalate monobasic, ACS reagent, acidimetric standard
Sigma-Aldrich
Phthalic acid dipotassium salt, 98%