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52444

Sigma-Aldrich

Violaxanthin

≥90.0% (HPLC)

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Synonym(s):
(3S,3′S,5R,5′R,6S,6′S)-5,6:5′,6′-Diepoxy-5,5′,6,6′-tetrahydro-β,β-carotene-3,3′-diol
Empirical Formula (Hill Notation):
C40H56O4
CAS Number:
Molecular Weight:
600.87
Beilstein/REAXYS Number:
101269
PubChem Substance ID:
NACRES:
NA.32

Quality Level

assay

≥90.0% (HPLC)

form

solid

λ

in ethanol

UV absorption

λ: 438-442 nm Amax

storage temp.

−20°C

SMILES string

CC(/C=C/[C@@]12[C@](C)(O2)C[C@@H](O)CC1(C)C)=C\C=C\C(C)=C\C=C\C=C(C)\C=C\C=C(\C=C\[C@]34C(C)(C)C[C@H](O)C[C@]3(O4)C)C

InChI

1S/C40H56O4/c1-29(17-13-19-31(3)21-23-39-35(5,6)25-33(41)27-37(39,9)43-39)15-11-12-16-30(2)18-14-20-32(4)22-24-40-36(7,8)26-34(42)28-38(40,10)44-40/h11-24,33-34,41-42H,25-28H2,1-10H3/b12-11+,17-13+,18-14+,23-21+,24-22+,29-15+,30-16+,31-19+,32-20+/t33-,34-,37+,38+,39-,40-/m0/s1

InChI key

SZCBXWMUOPQSOX-WVJDLNGLSA-N

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1 of 4

This Item
3198569190454764
vibrant-m

52444

Violaxanthin

vibrant-m

319856

Acetophenone-(phenyl-d5)

vibrant-m

91904

Violaxanthin

vibrant-m

54764

Neoxanthin

Quality Level

100

Quality Level

200

Quality Level

100

Quality Level

100

form

solid

form

-

form

-

form

solid

storage temp.

−20°C

storage temp.

-

storage temp.

−70°C

storage temp.

−20°C

λ

in ethanol

λ

-

λ

-

λ

in ethanol

UV absorption

λ: 438-442 nm Amax

UV absorption

-

UV absorption

-

UV absorption

λ: 435-439 nm Amax

General description

Violaxanthin is an epoxidized carotenoid obtained from plants. It is an orange-colored natural xanthophyll pigment.

Application

Violaxanthin has been used as a standard/control in high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis of pigment extracts to confirm the high-level astaxanthin accumulation suspected from the visual phenotype of Nt-AXT plants.

Biochem/physiol Actions

Violaxanthin is a carotene epoxide that is a precursor to capsanthin. It is one of three xanthophylls involved in the evolution of plastids of green plants (oxygen evolution) and participating in photo-induced interconversions known as the violaxanthin cycle. The cleavage of 9-cis-epoxycarotenoids (violaxanthin) to xanthoxin is the key regulatory step of abscisic acid biosynthesis.
Violaxanthin is a powerful antioxidant and a vital precursor to important compounds like fucoxanthin and β-damascenone. It is a non-photochemical fluorescence quenching structural component of the xanthophyll cycle that shields the photosynthetic system from excessive light. The 2,2′-azinobis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS+) radical scavenging action of violaxanthin extracted from water spinach/water morning glory is strong, and it also inhibits lipid peroxidation and red blood cell hemolysis. Hence, it has the potential to be used in a wide range of medicinal and health products.

Storage Class

11 - Combustible Solids

wgk_germany

WGK 3

flash_point_f

Not applicable

flash_point_c

Not applicable


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Formation and breakdown of ABA.
Cutler AJ and Krochko JE
Trends in Plant Science, 4, 472-478 (1999)
M Havaux et al.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 96(15), 8762-8767 (1999-07-21)
When light energy absorbed by plants becomes excessive relative to the capacity of photosynthesis, the xanthophyll violaxanthin is reversibly deepoxidized to zeaxanthin (violaxanthin cycle). The protective function of this phenomenon was investigated in a mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana, npq1, that
Feifei Wang et al.
Marine drugs, 16(6) (2018-06-03)
Violaxanthin is a major xanthophyll pigment in the microalga Eustigmatos cf. polyphem, but the amount produced after propagation can vary depending upon culture conditions. In this study, the effects of cultivation time, nitrogen concentration, light intensity, and culture mode on
T Kinoshita et al.
Nature, 414(6864), 656-660 (2001-12-12)
The stomatal pores of higher plants allow for gaseous exchange into and out of leaves. Situated in the epidermis, they are surrounded by a pair of guard cells which control their opening in response to many environmental stimuli, including blue
Daniel Riebe et al.
Sensors (Basel, Switzerland), 19(23) (2019-12-05)
The lack of soil data, which are relevant, reliable, affordable, immediately available, and sufficiently detailed, is still a significant challenge in precision agriculture. A promising technology for the spatial assessment of the distribution of chemical elements within fields, without sample

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