MilliporeSigma
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L4391

Sigma-Aldrich

Lipopolysaccharides from Escherichia coli O111:B4

γ-irradiated, BioXtra, suitable for cell culture

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Synonym(s):
LPS
EC Number:
MDL number:
NACRES:
NA.75

biological source

Escherichia coli (O111:B4)

Quality Level

sterility

γ-irradiated

product line

BioXtra

form

lyophilized powder

purified by

gel-filtration chromatography

storage condition

desiccated

technique(s)

cell based assay: suitable
cell culture | mammalian: suitable

impurities

<1% Protein (Lowry)

solubility

H2O: 5 mg/mL, slightly hazy

application(s)

clinical research
life science and biopharma

storage temp.

2-8°C

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This Item
L2654L6529F3665
form

lyophilized powder

form

lyophilized powder

form

lyophilized powder

form

lyophilized powder

technique(s)

cell based assay: suitable, cell culture | mammalian: suitable

technique(s)

cell culture | mammalian: suitable

technique(s)

cell culture | mammalian: suitable

technique(s)

-

solubility

H2O: 5 mg/mL, slightly hazy

solubility

H2O: 5 mg/mL, slightly hazy

solubility

H2O: 5 mg/mL, faintly hazy to hazy

solubility

H2O: soluble 4.90-5.10 mg/mL, faintly hazy to hazy, pale yellow to yellow

storage temp.

2-8°C

storage temp.

2-8°C

storage temp.

2-8°C

storage temp.

2-8°C

Quality Level

300

Quality Level

300

Quality Level

300

Quality Level

200

General description

Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) are intricate molecules consisting of lipids and polysaccharides, predominantly present in the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria. Comprising lipid A, the core oligosaccharide (core), and the O-specific polysaccharide or O antigen (OAg), LPS is anchored to the outer bacterial membrane, with lipid A primarily responsible for its associated toxicity. Functioning as a potent activator of the proinflammatory response, LPS engages various mammalian cells, including macrophages, monocytes, and endothelial cells. While serving a protective role for Gram-negative bacteria against environmental stress, LPS also triggers recognition by the innate immune system during infections.

Application

This LPS serotype has been used to stimulate B-cells and induce NOS in human hepatocytes.
Lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) are characteristic components of the cell wall of Gram-negative bacteria. LPS and its lipid A moiety stimulate cells of the innate immune system by the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), a member of the Toll-like receptor protein family, which recognizes common pathogen-associated molecular-patterns (PAMPs).

Biochem/physiol Actions

LPS is a major constituent of the cell wall of most gram negative bacteria. It is a highly immunogenic antigen with the ability to enhance immune responses to soluble antigens. LPS also acts as a specific mitogen for bone marrow derived B lymphocytes from mice, rabbits, chickens, cows, hamsters, and humans.

Features and Benefits

  • High-purity compound suitable for a wide variety of research applications

Reconstitution

Lipopolysaccharides are supplied as lyophilized, γ-irradiated powders. To reconstitute, add 1 ml sterile balanced salt solution or tissue culture medium to the vial (1 mg) and gently swirl until the powder dissolves. Reconstituted product may be further diluted to desired working concentrations using sterile balanced salt solution or tissue culture medium.

Other Notes

To gain a comprehensive understanding of our extensive range of Lipopolysaccharides for your research, we encourage you to visit our Carbohydrates Category page.

Pictograms

Skull and crossbones

Signal Word

Danger

Hazard Statements

Hazard Classifications

Acute Tox. 2 Oral

Storage Class Code

6.1A - Combustible, acute toxic Cat. 1 and 2 / very toxic hazardous materials

WGK

WGK 3

Flash Point(F)

Not applicable

Flash Point(C)

Not applicable


Certificates of Analysis (COA)

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Kelly L Brown et al.
Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950), 186(9), 5497-5505 (2011-03-29)
The human cathelicidin peptide, LL-37, is a host defense peptide with a wide range of immunomodulatory activities and modest direct antimicrobial properties. LL-37 can exert both pro- and anti-inflammatory effects and can modulate the proinflammatory responses of human peripheral blood
Jennifer Vandooren et al.
Haematologica, 102(10), 1671-1682 (2017-08-05)
Lipopolysaccharides or endotoxins elicit an excessive host inflammatory response and lead to life-threatening conditions such as endotoxemia and septic shock. Lipopolysaccharides trigger mobilization and stimulation of leukocytes and exaggerated production of pro-inflammatory molecules including cytokines and proteolytic enzymes. Matrix metalloproteinase-9
Christopher R Shaler et al.
PLoS biology, 15(6), e2001930-e2001930 (2017-06-21)
Superantigens (SAgs) are potent exotoxins secreted by Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes. They target a large fraction of T cell pools to set in motion a "cytokine storm" with severe and sometimes life-threatening consequences typically encountered in toxic shock syndrome
Chuan Yan et al.
Journal of hepatology, 63(2), 420-428 (2015-04-02)
Chronic inflammation is a major etiological factor for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), but how immune cells respond in the initiation of hepatocarcinogenesis remains uncharacterized. This study aims to investigate the response and roles of neutrophils in early hepatocarcinogenesis. By inducible expression
Wei Shao et al.
The Journal of biological chemistry, 282(50), 36321-36329 (2007-10-26)
Caspase-1 is an essential effector of inflammation, pyroptosis, and septic shock. Few caspase-1 substrates have been identified to date, and these substrates do not account for its wide range of actions. To understand the function of caspase-1, we initiated the

Articles

Lipopolysaccharides for Research – Structure, Function & Applications

Explore the structure, function, and diverse applications of Lipopolysaccharides. Discover their role in bacteria, serological specificity, and research potential.

Our team of scientists has experience in all areas of research including Life Science, Material Science, Chemical Synthesis, Chromatography, Analytical and many others.

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