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  • Induction of long-lasting protective immunity against Toxoplasma gondii in BALB/c mice by recombinant surface antigen 1 protein encapsulated in poly (lactide-co-glycolide) microparticles.

Induction of long-lasting protective immunity against Toxoplasma gondii in BALB/c mice by recombinant surface antigen 1 protein encapsulated in poly (lactide-co-glycolide) microparticles.

Parasites & vectors (2013-02-13)
Shu-Chun Chuang, Jing-Chun Ko, Chaio-Ping Chen, Jia-Tze Du, Chung-Da Yang
ABSTRACT

Current development efforts of subunit vaccines against Toxoplasma gondii, the etiological agent of toxoplasmosis, have been focused mainly on tachyzoite surface antigen 1 (SAG1). Since microparticles made from poly (lactide-co-glycolide) (PLG) polymers have been developed as safe, potent adjuvants or delivery systems, we aimed to encapsulate recombinant SAG1 (rSAG1) with the PLG polymers to prepare PLG-encapsulated rSAG1 (PLG-rSAG1) microparticles that would sustain rSAG1 release and generate long-lasting protective immunity against T. gondii in BALB/c mice. In the present study, rSAG1 was encapsulated into PLG microparticles by the double emulsion method. PLG-rSAG1 microparticles were then intraperitoneally injected twice at a 14-day interval into BALB/c mice. We examined the ability of PLG-rSAG1 microparticles to induce and prolong effective anti-Toxoplasma immune responses, in comparison with rSAG1 formulated with a Vet L-10 adjuvant (rSAG1 (Vet L-10)). Eight weeks after the last immunization, protective activities were also evaluated after a lethal subcutaneous challenge of 1 x 10(4) live T. gondii tachyzoites. PLG-rSAG1 microparticles, 4.25~6.58 micrometers in diameter, showed 69%~81% entrapment efficiency. The amount of released rSAG1 protein from microparticles increased gradually over a 35-day period and the protein still retained native SAG1 antigenicity. Intraperitoneal vaccination of mice with the microparticles resulted in enhanced SAG1-specific IgG titers as well as lymphocyte proliferation and, more importantly, these enhanced activities were maintained for 10 weeks. In addition, eight weeks after the last immunization, maximum production of gamma interferon was detected in mice immunized with PLG-rSAG1 microparticles. Furthermore, 80% (8/10) of mice immunized with PLG-rSAG1 microparticles survived at least 28 days after a lethal subcutaneous tachyzoite challenge. Encapsulation of rSAG1 into PLG microparticles preserves the native SAG1 antigenicity and sustains the release of rSAG1 from microparticles. PLG-rSAG1 microparticles can effectively induce not only significant long-lasting SAG1-specific humoral and cell-mediated immune responses but also high protection against T. gondii tachyzoite infection. Our study provides a valuable basis for developing long-lasting vaccines against T. gondii for future use in humans and animals.

MATERIALS
Product Number
Brand
Product Description

Sigma-Aldrich
Resomer® RG 505, Poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide), ester terminated, Mw 54,000-69,000
Sigma-Aldrich
Resomer® RG 504 H, Poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide), acid terminated, lactide:glycolide 50:50, Mw 38,000-54,000
Sigma-Aldrich
Resomer® RG 756 S, Poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide), ester terminated, lactide:glycolide 75:25, Mw 76,000-115,000
Sigma-Aldrich
Resomer® RG 858 S, Poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide), ester terminated, lactide:glycolide 85:15, Mw 190,000-240,000
Sigma-Aldrich
Resomer® RG 504, Poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide), lactide:glycolide 50:50, ester terminated, Mw 38,000-54,000
Sigma-Aldrich
Resomer® RG 503, Poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide), lactide:glycolide 50:50, ester terminated, Mw 24,000-38,000
Sigma-Aldrich
Poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide), ester terminated, Mw 50,000-75,000
Sigma-Aldrich
Poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide), lactide:glycolide 65:35, Mw 40,000-75,000
Sigma-Aldrich
Poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide), lactide:glycolide (75:25), mol wt 66,000-107,000
Sigma-Aldrich
Poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide), lactide:glycolide (50:50), mol wt 30,000-60,000
Sigma-Aldrich
Resomer® RG 752 H, Poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide), acid terminated, lactide:glycolide 75:25, Mw 4,000-15,000
Sigma-Aldrich
Resomer® RG 653 H, Poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide), acid terminated, Mw 24,000-38,000
Sigma-Aldrich
Resomer® RG 503 H, Poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide), acid terminated, lactide:glycolide 50:50, Mw 24,000-38,000
Sigma-Aldrich
Resomer® RG 502 H, Poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide), acid terminated, Mw 7,000-17,000
Sigma-Aldrich
Resomer® RG 502, Poly(D,L-Lactide-co-Glycolide), lactide:glycolide 50:50, ester terminated, Mw 7,000-17,000