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G3664

Sigma-Aldrich

Glutathione Reductase from baker's yeast (S. cerevisiae)

ammonium sulfate suspension, 100-300 units/mg protein (biuret)

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Synonym(s):
GR, NAD(P)H:oxidized-glutathione oxidoreductase
CAS Number:
Enzyme Commission number:
MDL number:
NACRES:
NA.47

form

ammonium sulfate suspension

Quality Level

specific activity

100-300 units/mg protein (biuret)

mol wt

118 kDa

UniProt accession no.

foreign activity

G-6-PDH, 6-PGDH, and NADPH oxidase ≤0.01%
lipoamide dehydrogenase ≤0.1%

storage temp.

2-8°C

Gene Information

bakers yeast ... GLR1(856014)

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This Item
G9297P5381G7877
specific activity

100-300 units/mg protein (biuret)

specific activity

≥10 units/mg protein

specific activity

≥400 units/mg protein (biuret)

specific activity

≥200 units/mg protein

mol wt

118 kDa

mol wt

-

mol wt

tetramer 119,500 Da±600

mol wt

128 kDa

UniProt accession no.

P41921

UniProt accession no.

P00390

UniProt accession no.

-

UniProt accession no.

-

foreign activity

G-6-PDH, 6-PGDH, and NADPH oxidase ≤0.01%, lipoamide dehydrogenase ≤0.1%

foreign activity

-

foreign activity

-

foreign activity

-

storage temp.

2-8°C

storage temp.

−20°C

storage temp.

2-8°C

storage temp.

2-8°C

General description

Glutathione reductase (GLR1) exists in mitochondrial and cytoplasmic isoforms. It shares sequence and structural homology to thioredoxin reductase, and is a flavin-containing oxidoreductase. Its active site is composed of a redox-active disulphide, and it requires NADPH for its catalytic activity. It is a widely present enzyme and is found in plants, bacteria, yeast, mice and humans.

Application

Glutathione Reductase (GR) from baker′s yeast has been used:
  • in the glutathione assay to determine glutathione concentration.
  • as a standard in the generation of calibration curve.
  • as an antigen to measure plasma activity of GR.
Glutathione reductase (GR) from baker′s yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) has been used-
  • for quantifying the myocardial tissue glutathione content using a glutathione reductase-5,5′-dithiobis (2-nitrobenzoic acid)-based enzymatic recycling assay
  • for the quantification of reduced glutathione (GSH) in the oocytes, using a slightly modified microglutathione assay, obtained from prepubertal gilts
  • for the preparation of total GSSG (glutathione disulphide) + GSH measurement, where all available GSSG was reduced to GSH, in rat lens
  • for the quantification of intracellular reduced glutathione (GSH) in the oocytes obtained from rats

Biochem/physiol Actions

Glutathione (γ-glutamylcysteinylglycine) is a ubiquitous tripeptide thiol which plays a crucial role in oxidative stress defence mechanism of the cell. Glutathione reductase (GLR1) is responsible for the reduction of the glutathione disulfide (GSSG) to reduced glutathione (GSH).
Glutathione reductase IGR) is a crucial flavoenzyme in the antioxidant defense system. Reduced glutathione (GSH) is used by glutathione peroxidase to detoxify hydrogen peroxide and in the process is converted to oxidized glutathione (GSSG). The GSSG is then recycled back to GSH by glutathione reductase (GR) using NADPH that is then converted to NADP+. The regenerated GSH is then available to detoxify more hydrogen peroxide. The enzyme uses FAD as a cofactor. GR and glutathione peroxidase may inhibit lipid peroxidation by functioning as antioxidant enzymes in sperm. Glutathione reductase shares a structural motif with a number of other proteins including aspartyl proteases, citrate synthase, EF hands, hemoglobins, lipocalins, and α/β hydrolases. GR is stimulated by melatonin and is reportedly irreversibly inhibited by a number of oxygen radical generating systems.

Unit Definition

One unit will reduce 1.0 μmole of oxidized glutathione per min at pH 7.6 at 25 °C.

Physical form

Suspension in 3.6 M (NH4)2SO4, pH 7.0, containing 0.1 mM dithiothreitol

Preparation Note

Purified by affinity chromatography

inhibitor

Product No.
Description
Pricing

Pictograms

Health hazard

Signal Word

Danger

Hazard Statements

Precautionary Statements

Hazard Classifications

Resp. Sens. 1

Storage Class Code

12 - Non Combustible Liquids

WGK

WGK 2

Flash Point(F)

Not applicable

Flash Point(C)

Not applicable


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Yan-Guang Wu et al.
Cell research, 17(8), 722-731 (2007-08-08)
Selecting oocytes that are most likely to develop is crucial for in vitro fertilization and animal cloning. Brilliant cresyl blue (BCB) staining has been used for oocyte selection in large animals, but its wider utility needs further evaluation. Mouse oocytes
Jing Wang et al.
Acta ophthalmologica, 88(7), 779-785 (2010-01-28)
To investigate the evolution of cataract development and glutathione redox balance in the rat lens after in vivo close-to-threshold dose exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UVR) around 300 nm. Three groups of 10 Sprague-Dawley rats were unilaterally exposed to 8 kJ/m²
Tünde Pusztahelyi et al.
Journal of trace elements in medicine and biology : organ of the Society for Minerals and Trace Elements (GMS), 30, 96-101 (2014-12-20)
Selenium deficiency is a major health problem worldwide for about 1 billion people. Bacterial cells usually possess low tolerance to selenite stress and also low ability to reduce high concentrations of toxic selenite. Here, high tolerance to selenite and selenium
Feng Gao et al.
The Journal of pharmacology and experimental therapeutics, 301(2), 543-550 (2002-04-19)
The present experiment determined the effects of glutathione and ascorbic acid, the two most important hydrophilic antioxidants, on myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury and evaluated their relative therapeutic values. Isolated rat hearts were subjected to ischemia (30 min) and reperfusion (120 min)
I P Gontar et al.
Bulletin of experimental biology and medicine, 150(6), 765-769 (2012-01-12)
The proposed method of emulsive polymerization provides the possibility of modifying and obtaining insoluble forms of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione reductase, and streptolysin-O preserving nanoobjects (conformationally active centers and antigenic determinants) in their native states. Apart from enzymatic and immunological

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