MilliporeSigma
  • Gestational and lactational exposure to atrazine via the drinking water causes specific behavioral deficits and selectively alters monoaminergic systems in C57BL/6 mouse dams, juvenile and adult offspring.

Gestational and lactational exposure to atrazine via the drinking water causes specific behavioral deficits and selectively alters monoaminergic systems in C57BL/6 mouse dams, juvenile and adult offspring.

Toxicological sciences : an official journal of the Society of Toxicology (2014-06-11)
Zhoumeng Lin, Celia A Dodd, Shuo Xiao, Saritha Krishna, Xiaoqin Ye, Nikolay M Filipov
ABSTRACT

Atrazine (ATR) is one of the most frequently detected pesticides in the U.S. water supply. This study aimed to investigate neurobehavioral and neurochemical effects of ATR in C57BL/6 mouse offspring and dams exposed to a relatively low (3 mg/l, estimated intake 1.4 mg/kg/day) concentration of ATR via the drinking water (DW) from gestational day 6 to postnatal day (PND) 23. Behavioral tests included open field, pole, grip strength, novel object recognition (NOR), forced swim, and marble burying tests. Maternal weight gain and offspring (PND21, 35, and 70) body or brain weights were not affected by ATR. However, ATR-treated dams exhibited decreased NOR performance and a trend toward hyperactivity. Juvenile offspring (PND35) from ATR-exposed dams were hyperactive (both sexes), spent less time swimming (males), and buried more marbles (females). In adult offspring (PND70), the only behavioral change was a sex-specific (females) decreased NOR performance by ATR. Neurochemically, a trend toward increased striatal dopamine (DA) in dams and a significant increase in juvenile offspring (both sexes) was observed. Additionally, ATR exposure decreased perirhinal cortex serotonin in the adult female offspring. These results suggest that perinatal DW exposure to ATR targets the nigrostriatal DA pathway in dams and, especially, juvenile offspring, alters dams' cognitive performance, induces sex-selective changes involving motor and emotional functions in juvenile offspring, and decreases cognitive ability of adult female offspring, with the latter possibly associated with altered perirhinal cortex serotonin homeostasis. Overall, ATR exposure during gestation and lactation may cause adverse nervous system effects to both offspring and dams.

MATERIALS
Product Number
Brand
Product Description

Supelco
Triethylamine, analytical standard
Sigma-Aldrich
Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid disodium salt dihydrate, reagent grade, 98.5-101.5% (titration)
Sigma-Aldrich
Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid disodium salt dihydrate, ACS reagent, 99.0-101.0%
Sigma-Aldrich
Triethylamine, for amino acid analysis, ≥99.5% (GC)
Sigma-Aldrich
Triethylamine, puriss. p.a., ≥99.5% (GC)
Sigma-Aldrich
Triethylamine, for protein sequence analysis, ampule, ≥99.5% (GC)
Sigma-Aldrich
Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid disodium salt dihydrate, meets analytical specification of Ph. Eur., BP, USP, FCC, 99.0-101.0%
Sigma-Aldrich
Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid disodium salt dihydrate, BioUltra, for molecular biology, ≥99.0% (T)
Sigma-Aldrich
Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid disodium salt dihydrate, suitable for electrophoresis, for molecular biology, 99.0-101.0% (titration)
Sigma-Aldrich
Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid disodium salt dihydrate, Sigma Grade, suitable for plant cell culture, 98.5-101.5%
Sigma-Aldrich
Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid disodium salt dihydrate, 98.5-101.5%, BioUltra
Sigma-Aldrich
Triethylamine, ≥99.5%
Sigma-Aldrich
Triethylamine, ≥99%
Sigma-Aldrich
Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid disodium salt dihydrate, ≥97.0% (KT)
Sigma-Aldrich
Triethylamine, ≥99.5%
Sigma-Aldrich
Triethylamine, BioUltra, ≥99.5% (GC)
Sigma-Aldrich
Methanol solution, NMR reference standard, 4% in methanol-d4 (99.8 atom % D), NMR tube size 3 mm × 8 in.
Supelco
Methanol solution, contains 0.10 % (v/v) formic acid, UHPLC, suitable for mass spectrometry (MS), ≥99.5%
Sigma-Aldrich
Methanol, ACS reagent, ≥99.8%
Sigma-Aldrich
Methanol, Absolute - Acetone free
Sigma-Aldrich
Methanol, ACS reagent, ≥99.8%
Sigma-Aldrich
Methanol, Laboratory Reagent, ≥99.6%
Sigma-Aldrich
Methanol, ACS spectrophotometric grade, ≥99.9%
Supelco
Methanol, Pharmaceutical Secondary Standard; Certified Reference Material
Sigma-Aldrich
Methanol, HPLC Plus, ≥99.9%, poly-coated bottles
Sigma-Aldrich
Methanol, suitable for HPLC, gradient grade, 99.93%
Supelco
Methanol, analytical standard
Sigma-Aldrich
Methanol-12C, 99.95 atom % 12C
Sigma-Aldrich
Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid disodium salt solution, for molecular biology, 0.5 M in H2O, DNase, RNase, NICKase and protease, none detected
Sigma-Aldrich
Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid disodium salt solution, 2%, solution